Evaluation of Patient-Related Factors in Identification of Thyroid Nodules by Clinical Examination
Kasim Caglayan1, Aylin Okur2, Ergin Arslan1, Ayse Yesim Gocmen3
1Bozok University, School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Yozgat/Turkey
2Bozok University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yozgat/Turkey
3Bozok University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Yozgat/Turkey
Keywords: Thyroid nodule, clinical examination, sonography.
Objective: it were aimed to compare the results of clinical examination and sonography. In addition, evaluate the effects of age, gender, body mass index, presence of autoimmune thyroiditis, history of previous surgery, volume of thyroid gland and localization of nodule on the detection of a nodule by clinical examination.
Material and method: 154 patients who applied to the general surgery outpatient clinic for thyroid examination were included to the study.
Results: In 154 patients, mean age was 67 (min:12-max:79) years. Female to male ratio was 138: 16. On the sonography, a thyroid nodule was detected in 69.5%, whereas no nodule was detected in 30.5% of the patients. In the nodule detection, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of clinical examination were found as 46%, 76%, 39% and 82%, respectively. Volume increase was identified as a risk factor for false-positive result in physical examination. The factors leading to inaccuracy in clinical examination were volume increase, drug use and gender.
Conclusion: The significant percentage of thyroid nodules can be detected by palpation; however, sonography improves detection rates. Volume increase, history of drug use and female gender are found as unfavorable factors affecting clinical examination.